In physics, any two objects will cause a certain attraction force on each other. They call this gravity. A similar force exists in electromagnetic fields called magnetism. In Gestalt, the attraction force between shapes is Grouping. Just as in the sciences, the attraction force will not necessarily move the other element though there will be an implied, but real, attraction between the two. Grouping is a major element in Gestalt and can be influences the visual center of an image.
The different types of grouping are: proximity, similarity, continuity, closure and pragnanz. Each is discussed below.
Consider that much of this topic of Gestalt may seem overly simplistic, but it helps to explain the actions of the unconscious mind during the act of viewing and you will see later how it supports the Principles of Art and Elements of Design. If you find it difficult to see the visual relationships described, try closing the eyes and clearing the mind as much as possible, then pay attention to what the eye and brain first perceives in the first second or two when viewing an image.
Proximity grouping is the influence objects within close proximity assert on each other. Looking below you will see how a grid of evenly spaced objects is nothing more than a grid of evenly spaced objects. It has balance and logic. Therefore, it is comfortable to the brains and the eyes can rest on it easily.
In the second image, we still have a grid of objects, but the brain accepts each set of double rows as being a single group of objects, though of the same shape. There is still a balance in the logic; it is just a bit more complex. Proximity also works for dissimilar groups of objects, as shown below.
Proximity of shapes affects the visual relationships of shapes within a frame, but the illustration may be a bit too simplistic. In the illustration below we will mix it up just a bit to reinforce the notion.
We now see 3 shapes of blue and 1 shape of grey. How does your brain relate them into groups? Though it is a different color and shape, the strongest reading seems to be that the square is grouped with the 2 overlapping blue shapes. The single blue shape on the upper left is likely grouped with nothing. Now, consider the grouping in relation to the whole page. A secondary reading may appear grouping all 4 object together when contrasted to the type and page layout. This occurs because there is no framing around the 4 objects presenting them as separate from the balance of the page. This changes their reference and logic, so the brain may see them in either light.
Having too many things in close proximity can affect the image negatively. This leads to incoherence, not allowing for the eyes to find a comfortable point of focus.
Similarity grouping is the influence that objects of like shape can assert on each other. Repetition of shape within the frame creates associations. In the illustration below grouping is mostly by shape. Even though the columns are separated they still associate in the mind. Because they are similar in size and color the grouping seems to be weak.
Color can be used to reinforce Similarity. Most people would see the arrows in this illustration below as being of two different groups based upon their color alone. There is no proximity change needed to induce the effect.
Look at the more complex examples of Similarity in the next two illustrations.
In the illustration above , the similarity is easy to pick up due to the sameness of the objects in the frame. The lines seem to be one group and the triangles seem to be another.
Now look at the same frame without the triangles. Can you pick out any groupings now? It isn’t as easy because all of the objects are similar. You might see the two adjacent lines on the left side (running diagonally to the right) as being a group due to the similarity of angle. You might also see the two lines running from edge to edge as grouped. There are a number of ambiguous groupings and what you do make out, appears depending on your momentary point of focus.
Comparing the two illustrations show some of the strength in using similarities to create groupings within the frame. Similarities can take the form of colors, as we have seen. They can also be shaped by textures, values, tones, movement, symmetries, etc, as seen below.
Similarity of shapes in an image produce repetition. Repetition in an image can be as strong an element in imaging as it is in music. But too much repetition can become boring, so the best repetition also has an amount of variation included.If you listen to classical music you will have often heard titles including the term, “Theme and Variations”. these are pieces where material structure is repeated while the form changes by changing the melody, rhythm, orchestration, etc. singly or in combination.
How many similarities, or repetitions, can you pick out in the portrait of three peasants by the German photographer, August Sanders? What variations do you find?
Keep in mind, too much similarity can cause quick exhaustion on the part of the viewer. Attention needs be paid to placement in this case. For example, an image of a single texture throughout the frame will be boring, while taking swaths of differing shapes or colors of the same texture, arranged in a pleasing way may not.
Closure is the brain completing what is suggested or implied. It takes the information available and completes it, though not all of the information is presented. Looking at the first illustration below you will perceive a circle, yet it is not a circle but a series of arcs. To make it a true circle the spaces between the lines need to be filled. But we perceive the figure as a circle because the brain performs closure for us. The brain is familiar with the shape and accepts it as whole. The graphic in the second illustration show two forms of grouping at work. At one level, the four triangles group into a star like form due to similarity. However, a square also appears where no square actually exists; the corners do not join. Again, the brain creates a closure of the form (The logo of the World Wildlife Fund seen on the page about figure and ground is an excellent example of closure at work). Notice in the third example how the suggestion of the square is less pronounced. This illustrates how proximity of elements will influence closure. Closure is most noticeable when the elements are near each other. The effect can dissipate with distance or if other shapes intervene. The resultant form suggested can also change. Notice in third illustration how the closure is beginning to describe a circle instead of a square.
Look at another example of closure below. In this case, the frame around the objects cuts off those portions of the blue circle extending outside of the frame. Yet the brain performs completion on it, making it seem whole. In reality, the shape never existed as a circle; it is the same as the green object in the lower right of the frame. Even knowing this will not keep the brain from closing the shape. At times the green shape will seem completed as a circle, with the bottom of the circle protruding through the ground and out of view.
The closure seen above is accomplished by the brain, yet the image creator can make their own closure. Looking at the first image below, notice how the jagged lines do not seem to close with one another. Also that the similarity grouping seems weak. Yet in the second instance, simply connecting the lines creates closure for us. In this instance, the addition of connecting lines enhanced the closure of unrelated elements and reduced the effect of similarity even more. You will also find there are times where a line from one shape creates an implied closure for another unconnected line.
Symmetry and asymmetry will respectively strengthen and weaken the effect of closure.
In the five groupings above, the first and last show only a little closure due to asymmetry even though they have a strong proximity relationship to their neighbor. The middle three groupings exhibit a certain amount of closure grouping due to their symmetry as well as their proximity.
The image frame influences closure. The frame can both complete the closure, or allow the closure to flow outside it’s boundaries.
The brain will accept continuation of the forms well outside of the frame. Looking at the image of jean Arp by Alfred Neuman, it is easy for the brain to finish the shape of the head. Again, logic born of experience comes into play with the brain completing objects based upon what it knows.
Next Time: Continuity and Prägnanz
Lens, Light and Composition is presented in a structured form with occasional asides. It is not a semi-random presentation of information. To get the greatest benefit from this blog it is advised that you start at the beginning of the table of contents, and work your way down from there. Thanks for reading.